Seasonal pruning of trees and shrubs is one of the most important aspects of plant care. It is this action that can activate the growth of plants and even out the nutritional balance of recently planted or diseased (damaged) plants in your garden.
Methods and terms of execution of a cut of plants were improved throughout very long time. At the same time, new methods have also been developed to regulate the growth and fruiting of plants. And as for a trimming of trees is, and for today, is difficult enough process.
Japanese traditionalists limit the list of species: pine, spruce, juniper, maple, azalia, rhododendron. But to date, their diversity has virtually no borders. According to centuries-old japanese traditions, certain classical bonsai styles have been formed, oriented towards the appearance of naturally growing trees. Of course, each plant has its own specific features, the totality of which determines its pronounced individuality. Thanks to these qualities, bonsai makes an unforgettable impression.
Due to the existence of a huge number of species and varieties of shrubs and trees in our region, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the plants will also respond to the removal of branches or changes in their position in space and role in the crown, will also be different.
It is also customary to pay attention to the climatic conditions that change every year. This factor also influences the condition of the plants and how they carry out the seasonal pruning.
For a long time we have done mostly winter pruning in the autumn-spring terms. At this time the plants are at rest.
It is not recommended to cut plants at the beginning of the movement, otherwise the plant, as they say, will start to cry. And it will take a lot of time and effort for beginners to heal these wounds. Foreign colleagues use special ointments for this purpose, which consist of physiologically active substances that contribute to the rapid healing of wounds.
Global warming in our region, when severe frosts are no longer an integral part of winter, makes it possible to cut plants for almost the entire autumn-winter season. This is especially possible if the trees are in the right shape and do not require radical removal of branches or complete rejuvenation. It is well known that after such measures large wounds are inflicted.
In order to quickly heal the wounds, the cut should have a circular influx at the base of the branch. The cut should not be made parallel to the trunk. In this case, the wound is large and difficult to heal. Also, do not cut perpendicularly to the branch. Although the wound will be the smallest, there will be a foam in the lower part of the wound, which is undesirable.
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Correct and timely pruning with good general care contributes to an early start of fruiting and development of the plant, as well as to increased frost resistance of trees.
In addition, it has an impact on the ease of cutting, pest control and disease control.
As well as the rational use of space and garden space.
The reaction of a tree on a pruning will depend in many respects on correct understanding of the basic physiological processes which occur in a plant.
With the natural growth of the tree at each age stage there is an appropriate dynamic balance between all its organs and parts. At decrease in volume of above-ground system the plant will activate all processes of vital activity for faster restoration of this balance.
At loss (a trimming, breaking, frostbite) of a small number of branches growth of shoots on crown periphery strengthens only. At a stronger pruning in addition to this awaken sleeping buds, there is a strong wolfing.
If this is not enough to restore the lost balance, root growth appears. Very strong disturbances cause a part of roots to die out. Often this is observed in cases of freezing of the tree, large breakdowns, excessive pruning.
At decrease in volume of root system (damage, soaking, etc.) the most part of products of assimilation, a moisture, elements of a mineral food goes to roots for stimulation of their growth and the fastest restoration. If the damage to the roots was very severe, it can mark part of the crown (for example, dryness or drying out of the ends of branches) or even the whole.
All pruning techniques are based on the deliberate imbalance of the plant at this stage of the equilibrium, so as to enhance the growth of individual or all branches of the tree. When removed correctly, the crown will create the required ratio of branches of different lengths and purposes, which, in turn, will determine the level of development or fruiting.
A lot of literature has been written about the pruning procedure, but to this day some gardeners are still in error, believing that:
This is probably the biggest mistake of a novice gardener who is not interested in how the tree will be trimmed. It is important to understand that a tree that can grow and produce a harvest of 20-30 years can be lost in 2-3 years only if it is trimmed incorrectly. And we are not talking about aesthetics yet. If excessively cut cambial tissue does not cover the branch cut, it will become an ideal environment for penetration into pathogens. As a result, the tree will begin to languish and in a few years it will be possible to uproot it. It is important to know that relatively painless pruning can be done on thicker branches so that the cutting diameter does not exceed 25 mm. Otherwise, the tree may also fall ill. And, of course, the cut of the wood must be treated with special putty.
The reason for trimming fruit trees is to remove dried, close and dangerous branches. Trimming also aims to improve the penetration of sunlight into the crown, and for shrubs - to remove the brushwood and give a decorative shape. Shrubs have branches cut above the ground. Deciduous fruit trees are cut so that the shade does not interfere with each other. And to maintain the aesthetics of the site annually cut trees with a beautiful coloring of young shoots. In addition, experienced gardeners can always say that a cut tree can always produce a better and bigger harvest than a neglected one.
Perhaps you shouldn't have done it if the tree hadn't been touched at all. It would grow, in what direction it wanted and how it wanted to grow. But if we took a pruning shear in our hands, we made irreversible changes in the development of the tree. Now the tree will start to compensate the lost branches with additional brushwood. As a result, if nothing else is done, the tree will begin to thicken. But that's what you've been struggling with. Therefore, when you start circumcision, you will have to continue it all the time.
Firstly, stone varieties, including cherry, plum, apricot, do not like autumn pruning. After autumn pruning, they are much worse able to withstand winter and often get sicker. For them, the best time for trimming is early spring, before the buds have blossomed, but after the end of the frost. If the trees are frozen in winter, it is better to cut them in spring after the leaves appear. At least you can see at what level the frozen branches should be cut. Seeds (apple trees, pears) can be cut more easily. However, even here it all depends on the purpose. If you just remove the dry branches, you can trim at any time. If you need to rejuvenate the tree, it is advisable to start pruning in early spring. If, however, it is undesirable to allow the appearance of wolves - shoots that go from the root vertically upwards, it is better to trimming after the appearance of leaves.
This myth is supported by many modern authors, operating with the fact that the seedling with damaged branches will take longer to take root. And the harvest will have to wait a couple of years longer. On the other hand, a seedling with cut roots and a rich crown may not take root at all and die. Therefore, it is better to wait for the harvest than to lose a variety of seedlings.
It is, of course, so. But for the northern regions with a depth of frost up to 2 meters, such trees are doomed. The fact is that the central root provides the tree with nutrients, which it takes from the lower non-freezing layers of soil.
Basically, this is true. But you have to break out living branches at the beginning of their growth. This way, the wood is less traumatized. Despite all the intricacies and complexities of this difficult work, Captain Handy qualified garden specialists are ready to carry out the above work in the shortest possible time and with maximum benefit to the plants.
A very important part of landscaping in Toronto is the quality of the work. If you have a private home, the yard should be well equipped and made in the best traditions of landscaping. By doing this in Toronto, Ontario and throughout Canada, our Captain Handy team will do so in a short time and to the best of their ability!