The era of rebuilding is a time when familiar foundations have collapsed. It was marked by both chaos in people’s minds and chaos in the streets of cities. There was no financial capacity, no strength, no desire to improve urban areas. As a result, parks and squares were overgrown with bushes, and beds and flower beds were flooded with dandelions and other “uncultivated” plants.
What is complex landscaping in Ontario?
In the last 15-20 years, the situation has started to change rapidly. And it has touched not only the capital, but also provincial cities. The Ontario Landscape Integrated Concept was developed, which included all landscaping and urban improvement work. This document includes not only requirements for the work on reconstruction and plastic organization of relief, but also for planting new trees, shrubs and flowers in the streets and parks, the installation of fences, architectural lighting of streets (entire blocks), the placement of small architectural forms and objects of urban design. According to this concept, integrated landscaping in Ontario involves 3 groups of urban spaces.
The first group is the city’s public spaces. They are actively visited by residents and are centers of city and local importance, such as theaters, cinemas, shopping centers, parks, squares or pedestrian zones.
Sites and specialized public spaces, which include government offices, hospitals or campuses, are landscape in Ontario according to their industry focus. For example, hospitals in the surrounding area (parks or public gardens) are equipped with benches for recreation.
The second group is residential areas. Own requirements to complex improvement have been developed for this group as well, and they are different for adjacent spaces, for school or pre-school institutions, for parking lots and public spaces within residential areas.
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The third group is recreational areas. This group includes parks, squares and boulevards, gardens and recreation areas. Specially protected natural areas – national parks, natural parks and forest parks – are also worth adding to this group.
Ontario complex landscaping has its own specifics in each case, but there is a common factor for all of the groups described above – each group necessarily includes green spaces.They are the ones that help create a uniform and harmonious Ontario landscape, not only by improving the ecology of the city, but also by simply decorating the streets.
Types of landscaping in Ontario. Lawns.
Types of planting ornamental plants for urban landscaping in Ontario were developed by landscape designers several centuries ago, with little change today. The main types still include ordinary and avenue plantings of trees, groups (curtain walls), solitaires, hedges, slaves, trellises and lawns.
Hallway plantings in Ontario are used for landscaping parks in Ontario and streets. This method involves planting trees in two parallel lines along paths at equal distances from each other. Trees in the alley method must be of the same age to obtain a flat and homogeneous alley. Trees of the same species are used in most cases, but sometimes 2 or 3 different species are also appropriate. A striking example of classic avenues are the chestnut alleys of Paris, in honor of which Parisians even organize an annual celebration.
Private planting is the easiest and most common method of planting trees or shrubs in a single line along paths or along the perimeter of sites. On almost any street in any city you can find this type of planting.
A group or curtain wall consists of several trees that are artificially planted in the open. The group can be single-species – from one type of tree or shrub, or mixed from trees or shrubs, as well as complex, consisting of trees and shrubs simultaneously. In some cases, the groups consist of perennial flowering plants.
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Single planting or solitaire planting. They are designed in open spaces to decorate small areas. They use beautifully blooming shrubs that include rose, lilac, jasmine or trees with the original color and shape of the crown – blue spruce, lime and oak.
Hedges in Ontario are often made from shrubs and used to enclose plots, flowerbeds, lawns, recreation areas or for decorative purposes. For hedges, prickly shrubs are usually used, which can be as high as 1-2 metres. Ontario ornamental hedges are much smaller in height, for example, the kerb is less than 0.5 m high.
Lawns in Ontario are the most common type of urban greenery. There are lawns almost everywhere – in residential areas, in public areas and in the territories of enterprises. There are three types of lawns for landscaping – normal, parterre and annual Moorish lawns.
A normal lawn in Ontario is sown with a mixture of grass or a single type of grass and is periodically mowed to give it a neat appearance.
Ontario parterre lawns are planted in critical areas of gardens, parks or near cultural facilities. It belongs to the elite types of lawn because it consists of only one specific type of grass and requires special conditions and care, including mowing once every 10 days, regular watering and fertilizing. A parterre lawn is distinguished by its high density and homogeneous colouring.
A Mauritanian lawn in Ontario consists of a mixture of grasses and flowering annuals. This type of lawn does not require mowing; it must grow naturally. Mauritanian lawns look great in large parks and gardens.
In addition to the types of planting mentioned above, flowerbeds, shrubs and flower beds, which are well known to all, are also used for planting trees and shrubs in Ontario. It should be noted that the choice of the type of landscaping depends directly on the territory with which work is done. For example, it is unlikely that in a small street will be appropriate curtain of large trees, and in a park with extensive vacant space – a small single bed.
In most cases, experts try to combine several types of plantings, resulting in a harmoniously formed space where all elements are connected not only with each other, but also with urban development.
There are 2 types of greenery used in urban landscaping: stationary and mobile.
Stationary landscaping in Ontario involves the normal planting of plants in the ground; in the case of mobile plants, they are planted in special mobile containers – vases or containers. These species are equally used to create architectural and landscape objects: gardens and flower beds, squares and indoor playgrounds with flowers or trees. Stationary and mobile landscaping in Onatrio is arranged on natural and artificial elements of relief, roofs or even facades of buildings.
Types of ornamental plants for urban landscaping in Ontario
Plants used in urban landscaping in Ontario must meet a variety of special requirements. In addition to external attractiveness, a controlled form and growth rate, resistance to diseases, pests and physical damage are required. Both the pungent smell of trees and flowers and the presence of natural poisonous substances and the ability to procreate far from the mother trunk, which leads to burglary of asphalt, and other less practical properties are undesirable. For example, many cities have abandoned the planting of poplars because of the fluff and fragility of trunks and branches, which break down from the strong wind.
When choosing plants you should take into account the length of daylight in a particular city, the average ambient temperature and humidity, the presence and location of groundwater, soil types. It makes no sense to plant southern plants in a city with a sharply continental climate as they will not survive anyway.
Local species of flora should be used first of all, taking into account that busy streets are not the best place for especially whimsical species of trees and plants. In addition, one should not forget about the architectural and artistic design of the greenery.
In the process of planting landscaping in Ontario, it is a good idea to choose the plants that can best meet your needs. For example, for landscaping a street in Ontario built up with multi-storey buildings, it is best to use tall trees such as birch, lime, sharp-leaved maple, and pine, additionally protecting facades from the sun. If you need to create shade on the sidewalks, it is sufficient to plant low and medium plants – cherries, rowanberries.
In addition, the height of trees and shrubs of the same species may vary considerably under different conditions.For example, linden trees in parks reach a height of 31 metres, while in the streets of the city it is only 10 metres high.
The shape of the crown, especially the trees, is also very important when choosing plants for urban greenery in Ontario. It is important when creating strict compositions – this is the casing of squares, streets, public buildings, etc. Some shrubs and trees have a clear geometric shape of the crown, while others require its formation. Trees such as fir, sea buckthorn, common spruce, rosehip, mountain ash, lime and thuja are well suited for cutting. Their use in landscaping helps to create very interesting compositions.
An equally important factor in the choice is the density of the crown. Densely crowned trees and shrubs provide the best protection against sunlight, wind and snow. Plants with transparent crowns increase the play of light and shadow and are therefore used in complex compositions to complement the architecture of buildings. Fir, cherry, elm, lime, oak and chestnut have a low transparent crown. Transparent crown – pear, aspen, plum, acacia and apricot.
The choice of herbs and flowers for urban greenery should also be subject to climatic and aesthetic requirements.The spectacular decoration of the city throughout the summer can provide flowerbeds of rapidly appearing and abundantly blooming alissum and petunia, mattiola and Iberian, as well as lupine. Parade flowerbeds, e.g. in the city centre or in front of administrative buildings, are formed in spring and autumn from flowering plants, among which are primrose, pinned cloves, anemones and ornamental deciduous – for example, waddle, badan and hostas.