Lawns are created not only by sowing seeds, but also by turfing and vegetative propagation of grass.
Turfing in Ontario is the fastest way to create a lawn. Turf should be strong, Roll Turf laying should be flat, without rough grass, with well developed underground shoots and roots, and the soil should be light. If the soil of the turf contains a lot of clay and silt particles, the field will not pass water well, in wet weather appears muddy, and after drying the field will become very hard. It is much easier to improve the species composition of the turf after it has been laid on the field than the mechanical composition of the soil.
The size of the turf is 25 X 40, 30 X 30 or 20 X 30 cm, the thickness is 3-6 cm. Before laying the turf fertilize the soil with the following mixture: bone meal – 5 parts, superphosphate – 3, potassium chloride – 2, ammonium sulfate – 2 parts (by weight) (50-80 g of mixture per 1 m2). The soil is prepared in the same way as before sowing the seeds.
The best time for field turfing is spring, autumn.
Vegetative propagation of grasses. Turfing in Toronto.
Specially bred grass varieties that produce many vegetative shoots and rhizomes are used, such as creeping bentgrass, meadow bluegrass, and Bermuda grass varieties.
Growing turfgrass vegetatively is divided into three stages:
- propagation of the plant in the nursery to obtain planting material – vegetative shoots, rhizomes and turf in Ontario;
- planting vegetative shoots (5-10 cm in length) or spreading them evenly on the soil and filling them with soil with a 0.5-1 cm layer;
- planting of cylindrical turf with a diameter of 5-10 cm – cork method. With the help of a turf extractor cut cylindrical shaped sods (diameter 5 cm, height 7 cm) and on a prepared plot in a staggered order plant them at a distance of 20 to 60 cm one from another. Planting nests are cut with the same turf picker. It is easy to handle, in one hour it is possible to make 500-1000 nests.
In our experiments, turfgrasses of new meadow bluegrass varieties were planted at intervals of 30 X 30 cm. After six months, a continuous turf cover was formed on the site. The new form of creeping bluegrass produced a dense grass cover for 1 ½ to 2 months using the above method.
We tested this type of bluegrass for six years in Ontario on experimental plots with different environmental and soil conditions in order to increase the resistance of creeping bluegrass to trampling and exposure to high and low temperatures. As studies have shown, creeping bluegrass has a desirable set of features: it is undemanding to soil fertility, low-growing, bushy and resistant to frequent and low mowing. If, for example, meadow bluegrass does not tolerate mowing below 4 cm, the new bluegrass perfectly tolerates mowing at a height of 2-3 cm, it even increases tillering and forms an exceptionally even, dense cover.
Creeping bluegrass can tolerate loads better than meadow bluegrass under the same soil conditions and play loads, because the roots and rhizomes of creeping bluegrass are strongly developed. When the soil is compacted, creeping bluegrass bush normally and the density of lawn grass is always high (projective coverage 100%), its roots in a dense environment go deeper than 7 cm, while the roots of meadow bluegrass were very weak and superficial (3.5 cm), and the cover is thinned.
Given the valuable qualities of the new creeping bluegrass, it was multiplied in the field by planting shoots and sods in a staggered order at a distance of 1 m from each other. New lawns of creeping bluegrass are created near clubs, not infrequently public institutions.
Sprouts of bluegrass planted at a distance of 20-23 cm from each other after a month and a half or two months formed a continuous dense cover due to the intensive growth of shoots and tillering of plants.
Creeping bluegrass grows well on light sandy soils and can grow on heavy soils. Its shoots and turf quickly take root when transplanted. This plant has another very important advantage – it is resistant to diseases and shade, while other bluegrasses under intensive agronomy, in particular when applying high doses of nitrogen fertilizers, are affected by powdery mildew, rust and helminthosporum.
The dense root system of creeping bluegrass prevents the development of weeds in the lawn. This is its very valuable quality. After the snowfall, creeping bluegrass grows in early spring at a soil temperature of 7 (at a depth of 5 cm), perfectly retains a light green color until the first snow.
Creation of lawns for various purposes in a variety of soil and climatic zones requires the selection of promising species and varieties of turf in Toronto.
Some of the foreign breeding varieties are of great interest to us.
For example, as a result of introduction, we created a high-quality lawn from new bluegrass varieties, the seeds of which were received from the USA, in particular the forms of “Baron”, Windsor S-2, Kentucky blue grass, which better than other tested grass species formed a strong, winter-hardy turf cover of good quality.
After wintering the lawn, the roots of the introduced Kentucky blue grass began to grow before all the tested bluegrasses (except for creeping bluegrass) at soil temperatures of about 1.8-3 degrees.
Turf in Ontario
A noteworthy experience is the introduction of a new drought-resistant Bermuda grass [hybrid form of Tifgreen, Tifway]. The turf measuring 7 X 15 cm was obtained from the United States (California). From this small turf by vegetative propagation was obtained planting material, which was enough to sod the soccer field area of 7500 m2.
Bermuda grass multiplies very fast and well and forms a cohesive, strong turf that perfectly tolerates high temperatures (350 and above), does not require frequent watering.
For better rooting and regrowth of shoots, Bermuda grass should be planted in the warm season at a temperature of 22 or higher, late-autumn planting of shoots did not give positive results.
Observations over the past six years have shown that the root system of Bermuda grass has grown better on loamy soil than on clay soil.
Bermuda grass has one disadvantage – it loses its green coloration in cold weather, but when the temperature rises to 10-120 it turns green again and resumes growth.
It can be assumed that Bermuda grass hybrids will find wide application in creating lawns on the Black Sea coast and in other southern cities of our country.
It is very important to organize work on the introduction of new species and forms of perennial grasses of local and foreign origin. The most stable varieties of local and introduced turf-forming plants in different climatic zones of the country should be selected and introduced. Breeders should help in this matter. It is known that varieties created by individual selection have better winter-hardiness and high energy of shoot formation.
Growing a lawn on mesh
Experiments have been conducted on the use of synthetic mesh in the creation of wear-resistant lawns. The fact is that the grid serves as the main means of protecting the soil and grass roots from mechanical damage, especially in wet weather. After careful levelling with a rake and an iron mesh the soil was rolled, lightly tilled, and seed mixture was sown (meadow-grass – 80%, bentgrass – 10%, ryegrass – 10%) at the rate of 20 g per 1 m2. Then a synthetic mesh was placed on top and rolled with a light roller.
The grid was fixed to the ground with wooden pegs and a thin layer of soil was poured on it up to 5 mm. The mesh mat is 1.5 m wide and 6-8 mm thick. The synthetic mesh should have a mesh size of 8 X 8 mm.
Sprouts appear a few days earlier on the soil covered with a net compared to the control plot. Sprouts are very friendly and develop quickly. Apparently, the grid plays the role of mulch in the sense that it protects the soil from drying out and overheating.
Abroad, different kinds of synthetic nets and mats are widely used for sprouting grass on them. For example, the Austrian firm “Sterk” has built soccer and tennis playing fields on synthetic mats in Germany, Sweden, Hungary and other countries.
In general, there are many ways to create a lawn and it is best to entrust it to specialists who know a lot about turfing, sodding and in general everything about lawns and grass. Contact the company “Captain Handy” and we will make all your wishes come true!
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