Stone works in East York are performed in the construction of foundations of walls, pillars, arches, vaults and other structures of buildings and structures made of natural and artificial stone works materials. Natural stones are used for rubble and masonry of structural elements. Laying of bridge supports, retaining walls, foundations, walls and columns of storage rooms, as well as basements of buildings are usually made of rubble stone.
Bridge piers, embankments, subway structures, monumental buildings, etc. are laid or faced with properly shaped heavy stones.
Artificial stone works in Toronto includes brick, ceramic and small block masonry. Bridge piers, walls of residential and industrial buildings, chimneys, etc. are erected from bricks. Of hollow ceramic and lightweight concrete stones, mainly the walls of buildings are laid out.
Recently, large panels and blocks made of a mixture of local materials (expanded clay, wood waste, slag, ash, etc.) with binders have become widely used in housing construction as a material for wall construction. The cheapest of them should be called arbolite. Arbolit is a wood concrete with the volume weight less than one unit, which has high strength, fire resistance and low thermal conductivity.
The technology of manufacturing arbolite is very simple. Different waste wood after crushing is mixed with cement, water and liquid glass. Then the product formwork is filled with a mixture treated with an electric current, under the influence of which the curing process of the product is many times accelerated.
Masonry in Toronto. Stone works
The large spread of natural stone materials in nature and the abundance of raw materials for the manufacture of artificial materials, as well as important properties such as strength and durability, fire resistance, contribute to the widespread use of stone materials in construction. The purpose of stone works in Richmond Hill is the construction of foundations, supporting and enclosing structures of buildings, decorative finishing. Stone structures in York consist of individual stones joined together in a single mortar, which hardens to form a monolithic massif.
The disadvantages of masonry in Toronto – a large relative weight of structures, low productivity, high material costs, the inability to mechanize the process of masonry. Depending on the type of materials used, masonry in Richmond Hill is divided into artificial and natural stones. In turn, for masonry of artificial stones widely used brick solid and hollow, solid and hollow rectangular stones (blocks).
Types of masonry in Bolton depending on the stones used:
- brick – from clay and silicate solid and hollow bricks;
- brick masonry in Mississauga with lining – from artificial and natural stones and blocks;
- fine block – of natural (shells, porous tuffs) or artificial, concrete and ceramic stones laid by hand;
- hemline – of natural and regular shaped stones, laid by hand or by crane;
- Butovoi, of natural, irregularly shaped stones;
- concrete – made of butte and concrete mixture, usually in formwork.
Elements of masonry in Aurora. Stone works
Regularly shaped bricks and stones are limited to six facets. The lower and upper ones are called beds, the two sides are larger – spoons, the two sides are smaller – stamens.
- The beds are the surfaces of the stones that absorb and transmit forces to the underlying layers of masonry.
- Spoon – a stone laid with a long side along the wall.
- Prod – stone laid with the short side along the wall.
- Seams – the space between the stones in longitudinal and transverse directions, filled with solution.
- Verst – outer rows of bricks when masonry.
There are external and internal workbenches, filling between the workbenches.
- Spoon Row – the method of laying, when the outer workbench consists of spoons.
- Poked row – the outer workbench is laid out of stakes.
- Poked row – the outer workbench is stacked from poked rows
Elements of brickwork in Toronto
There’s a whole stone works, half, three quarters and a quarter.
Brickwork in Aurora is called wasting if the outer joints are not filled with mortar to a depth of 1 … 1.5 cm, which leads to a better bond between the masonry and mortar for subsequent plastering.
Brickwork in Mississauga is called under the embroidery, if the outer wall will have a natural appearance and the joints of the brickwork fill in completely, giving them a different shape – convex, concave, triangular, rectangular, etc..
Undercut is called masonry in GTA , if the mortar fills the joints flush from the outer surface of the wall.
Stone masonry in GTA. Materials.
Artificial stone works materials include ceramic and silicate bricks, ceramic and silicate hollow stones and concrete and gypsum wall stones.
Solid hollow clay bricks have dimensions 250 x 120 x 65 mm and modular (thickened) – 250 x 120 x 88 mm, weight of bricks is 3.6 … 5 kg. Density 1.6-1.8 t/m3, brick grades 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300, water absorption up to 8%. The brick is produced by plastic pressing with subsequent firing. The main disadvantage is high thermal conductivity.
Cavity, porous and perforated bricks have heights of 65, 88, 103 and 138 mm (1.25, 1.5 and 2 times higher than that of a solid brick), lower density – 1.35… 1.45 t/m3. Marks of bricks – 75, 100 and 150. Application of this type of bricks allows to reduce weight of wall products up to 30%.
Silicate bricks are used for walls with relative humidity not exceeding 75%, brick grades – 75, 100 and 150. The brick is produced by autoclaving.
Ceramic and silicate hollow stones have dimensions: –conventional – 250 x 120 x 138 mm, enlarged – 250 x 250 x 138 mm and modular – 288 x 138 x 138 mm. The thickness of the stone works corresponds to two bricks laid on the bed, taking into account the thickness of the seam between them. The surface of the stones can be smooth and grooved.
Stones concrete and plaster wall let out continuous and hollow. They are made of heavy, lightweight and lightweight concrete and gypsum concrete with dimensions of 400 x 200 x 200 mm, 400 x 200 x 90 mm and weight up to 35 kg.
Cavity and silicate bricks cannot be used for laying walls below the waterproofing layer, for laying basements, walls of wet rooms.
Stone masonry in GTA. Solutions.
Solutions used for the construction of stone works structures are called masonry. Solutions bind individual stones into a single monolith, with the help of which the beds of the stones are leveled, resulting in an even transfer of force from one stone works to another; the solution fills the gaps between the stones and prevents the penetration of air and water into the masonry. In this way, the mortar ensures a uniform transfer of force, protects masonry in GTA from blowing, water penetration and increases the frost resistance of buildings.
Classification of mortars by type of filler:
- heavy or cold – solutions on quartz or natural sand from dense rocks with a density of more than 1500 kg/m3;
- light or warm – solutions on slag, pumice or tuff sand, ashes from CHPs, blast-furnace granulated or fuel slags with density less than 1500 kg/m3.
- The size of sand grains for all types of mortar should not exceed 2.5 mm, mobility of mortar for masonry – 9… 13 cm. Plasticizing additives are widely used: organic – sulfite liquor and soap-naft and inorganic – lime and clay.
Classification of solutions by type of binder: cement mortars – are used for constructions below the ground surface, in heavily loaded columns, partitions, in reinforced masonry. Composition from 1: 2.5 to 1: 6, grades of mortar from 100 to 300.
Minimal cement consumption per 1 m3 of sand – for underground part.
- of buildings of at least 75 kg, for the above-ground part – 125 kg. Portland cement
- and slagportland cement is used only in high grade solutions for demanding structures, in reinforced masonry, in underground masonry, in soils saturated with water or in winter masonry performed by freezing method;
- lime mortars are used in dry places and at low loads. They have high mobility, plasticity and provide the highest productivity. They use compositions from 1: 4 to 1: 8 and grades 4, 10 and 25
- mixed or complex mortars – cement-lime and cement-clay compositions from 1: 0.1: 3 to 1: 2: 15, grades 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100. Such mortars are used for masonry of most building structures. The second binder retracts the beginning of setting, improves usability and plasticity, but significantly reduces the strength of the mortar. In the volumetric dosage of mixed mortars, the first digit indicates the consumption of cement, the second – lime or clay dough, the third – sand.
The mortar strength growth rate depends on binder properties and curing conditions. At 15 ° C the strength of the simple mortar will increase as follows: after 3 days – 25% of the strength of the brand, after 7 days – 50%, after 14 days – 75% and after 28 days – 100%. With increasing temperature of the solid solution its strength increases faster, with falling – slower.
Comfort of the prepared solution depends on the degree of its mobility and water retention capacity, protecting the solution from delamination – the rapid separation of water and sand settling. The degree of mobility of mortars is determined depending on the immersion of a standard cone weighing 0.3 kg into it.
The water-holding capacity of the mortar, which prevents water separation and sludge settling, is especially important when laying the mortar on porous foundations and to protect the mortar from delamination during its transportation over long distances, when it is delivered to the place of work by pipelines. Usually, water retention capacity of the solution is increased by introducing surface-active organic additives or finely dispersed mineral substances (lime, clay).
Stone works in York mortars should not only be strong, but also plastic, i.e. they should allow laying them in the masonry with a thin homogeneous layer. Such a well-placed mortar fills in all irregularities in the base well and adheres evenly to the entire surface. In addition, this easy-to-use mortar increases bricklayers’ productivity and improves masonry quality.